90TH INFANTRY DIVISION
World War I
Activated: August 1917. Overseas: June 1918. Major Operations: St. Mihiel, MeuseArgonne. Casualties: Total-7,549 (KIA-1,091 ; WIA-6,458). Commanders: Maj. Gen. Henry T. Allen (25 August 1917), Brig. Gen. Joseph A. Gaston (23 November 1917), Brig. Gen. W. H. Johnston (27 December 1917), Maj. Gen. Henry T. Allen (1 March 1918), Brig. Gen. Joseph P. O'Neil (24 November 1918), Maj. Gen. Charles H. Martin (30 December 1918). Returned to U.S. and inactivated: June 1919.
World War II
Activated: 25 March 1942. Overseas: 23 March 1944. Distinguished Unit Citations: 5. Campaigns: Normandy, Northern France, Ardennes-Alsace, Rhineland, Central Europe. Awards: MH-4 ; DSC-54 ; DSM-4 ; SS1,418 ; LM-19; DFC-4 ; SM-55 ; BSM-6,140 ; AM-121. Commanders: Maj. Gen. Henry Terrell, Jr. (March 1942-January 1944), Brig. Gen. Jay W. MacKelvie (January-July 1944), Maj. Gen. Eugene M. Landrum (July-August 1944), Maj. Gen. Raymond S. McLain (August-October 1944), Maj. Gen. James A. Van Fleet (October 1944February 1945), Maj. Gen. Lowell W. Rooks (February-March 1945), Maj. Gen. Herbert L. Earnest (March-November 1945). Returned to U. S.: 16 December 1945. Inactivated: 27 December 1945.
The 90th Infantry Division landed in England, 5 April 1944, and trained from 10 April to 4 June. First elements of the Division saw action on Dday, 6 June, on Utah Beach, Normandy, the remainder entering combat, 10 June, cutting across the Merderet River to take Pont l'Abbe in heavy fighting. After defensive action along the Douve, the Division attacked to clear the Foret de Mont Castre, clearing it by 11 July, in spite of fierce resistance. An attack on the island of Seves failing, 23 July, the 90th bypassed it and took Periers, 27 July. On 12 August, the Division drove across the Sarthe River, north and east of Le Mans, and took part in the closing of the Falaise Gap, taking Chambois, 19 August. It then raced across France, through Verdun, 6 September, to participate in the siege of Metz, 14 September-19 November, capturing Maizieres les Metz, 30 October, and crossing the Moselle at Koenigsmacker, 9 November. On. 6 December 1944, the Division pushed across the Saar and established a bridgehead north of Saarlautern, 618 December, but with the outbreak of the Von Rundstedt drive, withdrew to the west bank on 19 December, and went on the defensive until 5 January 1945, when it shifted to the scene of the Ardennes struggle. It drove across the Our, near Oberhausen, 29 January, to establish and expand a bridgehead. In February, the Division smashed through Siegfried fortifications to the Prum River. After a short rest, the 90th continued across the Moselle to take Mainz, 22 March, and crossed the Rhine, the Main, and the Werra in rapid succession. Pursuit continued to the Czech border, 18 April 1945, and into the Sudeten hills. The Division was en route to Prague when the war in Europe ended.
Assignments in the ETO*
5 March 1944: Third Army. 23 March 1944: Third Army, but attached to First Army. 27 March 1944: VII Corps. 19 June 1944: VIII Corps. 30 July 1944: Third Army, but attached to First Army. 1 August 1944: XV Corps, Third Army, 12th Army Group. 17 August 1944: Third Army, 12th Army Group, but attached to V Corps, First Army. 25 August 1944: XV Corps, Third Army, 12th Army Group. 26 August 1944: XX Corps. 6 January 1945: III Corps. 26 January 1945: VIII Corps. 12 March 1945: XII Corps.
Nickname: Tough 'Ombres; formerly called the Texas-Oklahoma Division. Shoulder patch: A khaki-colored square on which is superimposed a red letter "T", the lower part of which bisects the letter "O", also in red. Association: 90th Division Association, P. 0. Box 600, Arlington, Tex. (Mr. Cling C. Mason, executive secretary). Publications: 90th; by unit members; Army & Navy Publishing Co.,
Baton Rouge 1, La.; 1947. The Tough "Ombre"; quarterly newspaper, published by the 90th Division Association. Tough 'Ombres! The Story of the 90th Infantry Division; Stars and Stripes, Paris, 1944 ; 32 pp.
Nota Bene: These combat chronicles, current as of October 1948, are reproduced from The Army Almanac: A Book of Facts Concerning the Army of the United States, U.S. Government Printing Office, 1950, pp. 510-592.]
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